You were used to taking pictures with your phone, but now you obtained a DSLR and became more confused than ever. What are all these settings? Changing the aperture, ISO, and shutter speed can have a noticeable impact on how your photos turn out. I am here to teach you about those three fundamental settings that serve as a head start into the photography world.
In your lens, there are small blades that control the amount of light that comes through. Apertures use an f-stop scale, in which the smallest f-stop value brings in more light (the opening is larger) while the largest f-stop value brings in less light (the opening is smaller). In that case, when your picture is a little too bright, a change into a higher f-stop can solve the problem.
The main effect that an aperture has when taking pictures is the depth of field. Depth of field is how much of a picture is sharp. For example, when you look at the pink flowers above, in the lowest f-stop, you can see that it is the main focus of the picture due to the sharpness compared to the background that is blurred out. Low apertures enable you to focus more on a particular subject(s) without the distraction of other objects in the frame.
As you see the f-stop getting higher and higher, the background becomes more sharp and you can start to see the outline of the other leaves and flowers. Usually, when people take photos of a subject like a person, they would use a low f-stop to put all focus onto them. For pictures of a landscape, it is desirable to use a high f-stop and keep all parts of the picture sharp.
The exposure of your camera is determined by the ISO, reflecting the sensitivity of the digital sensor. A low ISO number means that your camera is less sensitive to light and a high ISO number means that it is more sensitive to light.
How can it impact my pictures? A low number of 100 can make the picture darker, but since it is associated with a slow shutter speed, it is best to use a tripod so it won’t be too shaky. In the set of pictures above, it may be difficult to notice the difference in exposure. However, looking at the lowest ISO number, you can see how the picture is less grainy.
A high ISO number not only makes a picture brighter, but also brings in more noise. This noise refers to the grainy look of a photo, as the sensitivity to light increases. This is why taking photos at night results in grainy photos, since you need to compensate for the lack of light. It is important to note this because it may make a picture become of less quality when more noise is present.
The duration of the opening that lets in light is determined by the shutter speed. A slow shutter speed can last for more seconds, and in some cameras, even for minutes. A fast shutter speed can take just a fraction of a second. This affects how movement is portrayed in a picture as well as the brightness.
Take a look at the picture with the slowest shutter speed of 1 second. Since the shutter closes in a longer duration, the movement of the fan is noticeable due to the blur and the picture is brighter as well. Make sure you use a tripod as your movement of the camera can also affect how a picture turns out. That is not to say that it is bad to use a slow shutter speed; it can be great for capturing movement like rain or creating “light art” in the dark.
When the shutter speed of the picture goes into a fraction of a second, the fan is less blurry as it freezes movement, and the picture is darker. This is great when you don’t have a tripod and take hand-held photos. People who take pictures at sports events will find it useful as it can be really difficult to photograph an athlete moving with a slow shutter speed.
Is your logo pixelated no matter what you size it to? An EPS is a graphics file format that creates files that are vector-based. Graphics can still be in high-resolution in any scale, and design software like Adobe Illustrator can help you create an EPS file or convert it into other types such as JPG and PNG files.
Whether you are on Google Chrome or Firefox, a PDF file can be viewed while keeping the format and text just the same, not only on the screen but also on paper. This makes it a great way to view any vector-based graphics anytime and anywhere. On top of that, Adobe Acrobat can be utilized to edit PDF files.
If you are looking for a raster file that keeps the same quality in a lossless compression? A TIFF file can keep image data as how it was originally no matter how much you manipulate, save, copy, etc. the file. Color images that are high quality can be saved with a TIFF including multiple layers and pages. It is great for photos that you plan to print even though the file may take a long time to load.
Did you notice the picture above on this page? That picture is a JPEG, a common file type with a compressed image, usually for digital photos. You can open it in countless programs that support images. Since the file size is decreased when saved as a JPEG, the page will load quicker which is the reason why it is so popular to use in places like websites. However, as the file size decreases even more, it lowers the quality of the image due to the lossy compression.
If your image doesn’t have too many details, a PNG can be a great choice. This image file has a lossless compression used for graphics and color support. It does not support CMYK color as it is not commonly utilized with professional graphics. Logos, charts, and more can be saved as a PNG file.
Have you ever seen all those binary numbers and wondered what they could be used for? An ASCII is a code that creates a display of characters such as numbers and can remove characters as well. You can say that it is the language between computers for data transfers. Web developers and programmers make use of ASCII with the 128 characters.
Movies that are created and put out on the Internet are saved in a MPEG video file. Audio, video, and other image data are compressed into a lossy format, creating smaller files. To open a MPEG file, you can use programs such as Windows Media Player and VLC media player. It is supported by many browsers, but not HTML5.
When you create music with your electronic keyboard, you can control many different sounds with the help of MIDI. Digital notes from MIDI files can be encoded and distributed to digital and hardware devices. The loudness, timing, type, and duration of notes are stored in them.
Created by Microsoft, an AVI file contains audio and video data and is mainly for use on Windows computers. Although many video players support AVI files, the data encoded in them must be compatible with the video player.
You could be listening to the new track from your favorite artist through a WAV file. This audio file is the standard for PCs and is mostly seen with Windows-based computers, though it can be played on Macintosh and Linux. Unlike MPEG files, WAV files are supported by HTML5.
For those who work in multimedia, there are endless jobs related to what you work with. Do you know which ones you have your eyes on? If not, I will introduce you to 5 jobs that you should take into consideration.
Graphic designers create art in the form of print or electronic media, as seen on that movie poster you walked by or the websites you visit on a daily basis. They meet with clients to discuss a general idea of how something is portrayed, the meaning behind it, choosing colors, where the text is placed, and more. Clients may vary depending on the specialization of the designer. For example, some may have more focus on designing posters and flyers, and others may focus more on designing packaging for products.
Skills that are required for a graphic designer include creative, analytical, communication, computer, and time management skills. You must be able to come up with unique designs and layouts that are put together well and convey messages to consumers. Although an idea may be creative, it is important to analyze how others will perceive it. Communicating with the client is important to avoid any misunderstandings and achieve the desired result that will satisfy them.
As software continues to improve, designers should be able to use design software with little to no complications. Deadlines will only get closer and you may have multiple clients, so managing time effectively is great.
A creative director is a person who will oversee the entire production of a project. If you want to use every multimedia software you know in one job, this is the job for you. Projects can range from film to graphic design, and your leadership will be used to guide the production team on the creative process. On top of meeting the requirements of clients, creative directors can recommend changes to the look of a presentation and create marketing plans.
Skills that are essential to becoming a creative director are organizational, productivity, leadership, client relationships, and marketing skills. With so many projects to oversee and handle, it would be a disaster if all plans are misplaced and all over the place. A multimedia project will not be created by itself, so being able to work on large projects without a decrease in productivity is vital. As a director, you should be able to lead others and direct them towards the desired result.
You will be the middleman between the client(s) and your team members on the development on the multimedia project. Marketing skill is a part of being a creative director since you take part in creating an idea to be sold to the world.
Were you ever obsessed with the graphics or the story line of your favorite game? Would you want to create your own? Video game designers make the general design of a game from the characters to the layout. Working with graphics and animations is a huge part of designing a game. While working as a video game designer, you may join graphics with sounds, create a map, develop a plot, design characters, and much more.
Great skills to have would be having an artistic vision, ability to do storytelling, work with a team, and passion for video games. How a game looks is extremely important since video games are heavily based on the graphics which can affect how someone perceives them. People like to find meaning in something, and whether it is the background of a character or the plot of the whole game, a story helps connect with the player.
Being able to work with a team well is an excellent skill since everyone’s part in developing the game must be put together and communication is key. Without a passion for video games, being a video game designer could be daunting and passion can drive creativity and work ethic in this field.
From a minimalistic design to an abstract design, websites not only give information but leave an impression on the visitor. Designing a website does not require coding, but it is good to consider it when developing a site from scratch. Web developers may design the layout of the site, choosing where to place text, pictures, or decide on the font and color that will put everything together. They interact with the client to ensure the information is displayed ideally on the website and that the client is satisfied with the presentation.
After communicating with the client, you should be able to finish putting the website together on time, assuming you also have other websites to create for many more clients.
Thanks to videographers, you can watch live music shows with your favorite artists or look back on your wedding day. They record live events and even short films on flexible hours as each event has a different time and place. The cameras, lights, and sound setup are a part of the videographer’s duty along with maintaining the equipment. Videos can be directed and designed by them. After recording and traveling, the video clips are edited to be put together excellently.
Major skills include computer, multitasking, detail oriented, and interpersonal skills. Whether you are working with Cinema 4D or Adobe, videographers must be able to work with computer applications. Due to different events, people, and key moments, you must be able to manage equipment along with observing the scene, trying not to distract anyone in the process.
Paying attention to detail will help create an amazing final product, and making the people you are filming feel comfortable can make you go on your way to being a good videographer.
The copyright symbol seen above should be familiar to you. From your favorite music to the websites you browse, copyright is used, protecting the creator’s work. You can legally bind yourself to your work as the creator, the date created, and sue those who infringe your copyright. Works that can be protected include: music, visual art, movies, architecture, writing, choreography, and computer software. Without further ado, lets get right into the world of copyright.
Under the Copyright Act of 1976, copying the work of others is prohibited. This law is governed by a federal statute so you should be careful of what you put out as your own work. However, getting inspiration from someone else’s creation is not considered infringement on copyright. I am a huge fan of nail art, and there are many nail art blogs out there. If I were to copy the explanations and other text contained in those blogs, I would be infringing on copyright. Yet, if I do my nail art the exact same way they do, there are no consequences in regards to copyright.
The US Copyright Office holds a ton of records and you can check in the archive to see information on registered works. You can get your work registered at the Library of Congress in the Copyright Office in addition to searching for other copyrighted documents. You don’t need to feel compelled to register your new creations immediately. Even if your work is not registered, it can still be protected by copyright law. To be on the safe side, it is great to have a copyright registration and notice just in case.
To create a copyright notice or disclaimer, you must use the key parts that make it up. These parts include the copyright word and/or symbol, date of publication, owner’s name, and the expression, “All Rights Reserved.” This statement is not mandatory, but it can be included to further state the copyright of your work. Regarding the date in the disclaimer, keep in mind that it should not include the month and day, just the year(s). The year you put for the notice would be the year that you made your work accessible to the general public. As for the range, if your work has a mix of old and new, a range of years will do.
For the name, it does not have to be the name of a single author. Multiple people, an organization, or a business name can be stated in the disclaimer as the owner. Some statements you can add to the end of the disclaimer may be “All Rights Reserved,” “Some Rights Reserved,” and “No Rights Reserved.” Under “Some Rights Reserved,” you can use the material but not change it, and under “No Rights Reserved,” you can claim that you are the creator but not restrict how others would use your work. You can place the copyright notice as a watermark or at the very bottom.
In order to file your work for copyright, you must submit an application to the US Copyright Office. There is a fee that comes with registering and it is nonrefundable. Once your work is sent in for copyright, it will not be returnable. Those were the three things that you much submit to the Copyright Office. Has it been 3 months since you’ve shown the general public your unregistered work? Don’t worry, you can still register to sue on infringement. How about 5 years? Registering for copyright in that duration will allow work to be accepted as true unless it is proven otherwise.
You were trying to take a series of photos but your hands were shaking. Before you know it, the battery was dead and there were no other batteries on you. With knowledge on tripods, grips, and holds, this will not be much of a problem anymore. In that case, I will explain to you about them.
These three-legged structures support your camera, holding it steadily. There are many parts of a tripod, so let’s start with the tripod head. Types of heads include the three-way head, ball head, and pistol grip head. The three-way head has three control handles that move in vertical, horizontal, or panning positions. Ball heads are more compact and the camera can be moved in nearly every angle. Pistol grip heads are similar to a ball head, but instead of using knobs, they use a squeeze grip. When you squeeze the grip, you can move the camera and release it to keep it in place.
“Oh no, my subject is too high up!” Don’t worry, tripods have adjustable heights with multi-angle locks. To lock the height, various tripods may have pull-out tabs, friction knobs, or sliders.
“My subject is still too high up! What should I do?” Aside from multi-angle leg locks, the center column of a tripod can elevate the camera even higher. Most center columns can be reversed and help you take photos close to the ground. Friction collars keep them in place, and a lever can raise or lower the center column. Be careful and check for stability when using it.
In addition to tripod legs, some may have single sections and others have multiple sections. Single sections will not provide as much height as multiple sections, and as I said before, stability would have to be sacrificed when the height is extended even more. Interchangeable feet can be a part of some tripods, and there is a wide variety of them that suit different needs. A couple of them include rubber bumpers, spikes, clawed feet, strakes, etc.
To secure your camera on a tripod, quick-release plates are there to help. You can match up the bottom of your camera with the screw (make sure not to screw it in too hard) and place it in the plate.
Different types of grips can be used with your camera to improve your grip. Don’t like neck straps? You may find hand straps to be convenient and they basically stick the camera to your hand. Some of these hand straps allow you to attach the camera to your tripod without removing the hand strap. However, they may become inconvenient if you have to use your hand to do other tasks.
“My battery is dead and now I can’t take pictures anymore.” This is where a battery grip comes in handy. They can give you an extra grip on your camera, but it also has many other functions that will save you from distress. Instead of having to worry about your camera battery running out, shooting time can be extended with extra batteries in the grip. When the battery dies, the camera will automatically use the batteries in the grip without you having to change it. If you have big hands, battery grips can make holding smaller cameras easier. On top of that, an extra shutter button will be provided, so when you turn your camera in any way, there is one more button available.
You almost dropped your camera with its smooth finish, but you feel that it makes you drop it easily. Friction (grip) tape can be stuck onto a camera and help you hold it better, just like how tennis rackets have friction tape to help players hold it with a better grip. Be aware that friction tapes with adhesive already attached to it may be harder to remove.
You might have been holding your camera wrong all this time. I know I have at one point. With your right hand, your index finger should be near the shutter button, and the thumb should be on the back of your camera. The rest of your fingers wrap around the front of the camera. The part that many people get wrong is where they place their left hand. Your left hand is used to support the bottom of the lens (mainly for DSLRs). If you want to line up your subject with your camera more accurately, you can use the viewfinder and hold the camera closer to you for more stability. Leaning onto a solid object can also help give the camera a steady position.
My process of taking the photo starts with focusing the camera on the subject. To do this, I adjust the position on the camera on the tripod to make sure the head is not cut off, and that the shoulders are still in the frame. The center square helps me focus on the eyes for my photos. The lights are moved around based on the skin tone. If the skin is too bright, I usually move the lights slightly away or turn off one light. If the skin is darker, the lights can be brighter and be moved a little closer to the subject. To make the portrait photo, I went on Photoshop, opened a 1080 by 1080 file, and dragged a photo to the white background. I dragged the photo until it filled the white spaces, slid the photo, and pressed Enter. This process was repeated for all the other photos in Layers.